Recoilless rifles

In the early 20 century, a new type of weapon - recoilless rifles. They have several advantages, chief among them low weight. Such shells are deprived of wheels, often do not provide feeds. They are very similar to the grenade, but the line between these types of weapons held historically. They can be combined into one group - bezotkatnye system. The main feature - the lack of impact of the shot. This is achieved through the withdrawal of powder gases in the polar shots. This design also has advantages and disadvantages in relation to traditional artillery. Therefore can not give priority to any one type of gear.
In Russia, history recoilless guns linked with the name of the engineer Kurczewski. He has developed several types of rocket-propelled guns, some of them were tested and were "taken" in the army. Then, obviously, the leadership took note of the TTH shells and conditions of their use - and they were removed from production. A few thousand already received by the units bezotkatnoy equipment were sent to salvage. Yet the engineer - repressed. Government tops the country were unable to assess the quality of new weapons. Returned to their development only after the war when they could have been taken up.
One of the first used in combat conditions, recoilless rifles was faustpatron. It was a tube with jet charge and the projectile. During the years of war were released more than 8 million a quarter. Faustpatrony is an individual tool in the fight against infantry armor. They had to fill a niche missing artillery.
Recoilless rifles were placed and placed on planes, samohodkah. On this principle during the Cold War was made even nuclear weapons.


During the Russian-Japanese War, it became clear that there is no means to defeat the enemy is in the trenches at close range. It should have been gun, who shot a hinged on a trajectory for short distances. He has developed and applied in practice Russian officer Gobyato.
The first mortars were made from the trunks of 47-mm guns and conventional metal pipes laid down on a wooden bed. Vystrelivali they sea mines with specially developed stabilizer.
Very quickly the new weapons confirmed its soundness, and was taken up. By the beginning of the First World War, many countries have developed their mortars. The Russian army was equipped with 47-mm and 58 mm mortars, which shot 21 mines and 36 kg. Range for the first - 390 meters a second - 510. Then, have been developed mortars and other sizes: 50, 81, 105, 119 mm.
The Second World War once again confirmed the feasibility of using mortars. All fought States supplied the infantry of these weapons. In the period the Great Patriotic War, Germany has released 68 thousand mortar shells and the Soviet Union - 347.9 thousand.
A masterpiece of mortars could be 37-mm mortar-shovel. It can be put in line with T34 tanks and Kalashnikov assault rifle. The main advantages - simplicity and low cost manufacturing, ease and unpretentious in circulation, light weight and functionality. This mortar weighed 1.5 kg and the total was made in the form of shovels, the working part of which was made from bronevogo sheet. Using these weapons might one fighter, which produces up to 30 rounds per minute. Firing range - up to 300 meters. «Lopaty» used after a concealed rapprochement with the enemy, and then changed the location. Together with the high rate is creating the impression of large concentrations of troops.
Used mortars and now. They could be charged with dula (small and medium) and or the Treasury (heavy). Mortars can be carried, vozimymi, towed and self.


Howitzer - mainly offensive type of artillery shells, fired at hinged trajectory. Initially, she fired stoneware shot and smote the enemy infantry. But with 14 centuries functionality howitzers increased - now the gun can be used in various combinations.
Howitzers have a caliber of 100 mm, while the ratio of length to the barrel size mostly more than 25. This creates a hinged flight trajectory projectile to fall in shelter purposes. Particularly active howitzer artillery used in conducting offensive operations. Fragmentation shells allow smoke out enemy infantry from the trenches. But they can also be used in the defense. Oskolki shells in the open space, causing even greater damage. A fairly high rate of fire 0.5 - 6 rounds per minute allows awash any attack.
Howitzer artillery was used in 14 century, it has not lost its significance now. Especially the massive application had for years first and second world wars. The most powerful howitzers those times were a caliber of 152 mm. Among them, especially allocated Soviet M-10, 1938. This howitzer was designed by domestic engineers, based on the experiences of German development. At the time, propelled howitzer was a perfect weapon. It said that in the USSR it exploited continued until 1957, and in Finland until 2000! Based on this howitzer shells were made for powerful tanks KV-2.
Previously were towed howitzers - to the scene of battle they brought with the help of horses and later tractors, trucks, tanks. Now most of them self, and from the tanks has only a minority of their armor. A towed artillery installations often have auxiliary engine. Among the non self-guns: Russian D-30, the American M198, a Swedish FH-77 firm Bofors. Notably, the first two are very similar.


Many are accustomed to call any barreled weapon of large caliber gun. But that's not true - depending on the ratio of fire, barrel length and flight path emit mortar shells, cannon and howitzer.
Mortar fires hinged on the trajectory of massive projectiles with a large quantity of explosives. Use it to continue until the end of the Second World War. But even then its use is not appropriate to recognize because of the low rate. And now they do not use, because it functions more can be done successfully with the help of bombers and missiles.
The difference between the cannon and howitzer based on length of the stem to size. If it is more than 25 - the gun is a gun, if less - that propelled howitzer. Gun to the same initial velocity is great. The flight projectile is happening on a flat trajectory than the howitzer or mortar.
It is believed that the first gun did inventors of gunpowder still in the first half of 12 century. Trunk of a bamboo. From the Chinese technology was transferred to the Arabs, who actively use these weapons since the early 14 century. In Europe, the artillery came through the Spaniards. These guns are made of bronze and shot kernels zaryazhaemymi through the barrel. Apply innovative rounds - two core chain-related, inflammatory and kartechnye, metal rods with Enhancement at the ends. Their aim was the destruction of the living forces of the enemy.

Later steel to produce cast iron and steel, forged steel cannon. After the invention of a unitary cartridge, this technology began to apply for a gun. At first they were small pieces, then all the new guns were used unitary cartridge.
Depending on the structure for the purposes of gun ship, aircraft, antitank, antiaircraft guns, and others can rout the living force of enemy explosive ordnance. In order to defeat armored targets and the destruction of durable fortifications used armor.


During the Second World artillery clearly dubbed «the god of war». This nickname was emko attitude of soldiers to this kind of troops. Before any attack artpodgotovka meant fewer losses among the infantry and armor. And the enemy offensive, especially discourage tank can be only by guns.
There are several types of artillery units, each of which serves their purpose. However, the border different plants may be blurred. So howitzer can also be used as a gun.
Even in the Middle Ages there were several types of guns: guns, howitzers, mortar. Some of them were intended to split the enemy troops, while others were designed to destroy the wall, still hinged on a trajectory zabrasyvali exploding shells into a fortress. Now artillery much variety.
Cannonade artillery is used to engage targets of direct fire or closed positions. Shooting is on the flat line of flight. Mainly used in the defense. Howitzer artillery, in contrast, is effective in attack. Since its shell is hinged trajectory, it is good for artpodgotovki and destruction of private purposes. In the often-changing situation on the front, convenient to have something in between howitzers and cannon. This was informed during the Second World when and introduced the term gun-howitzer. It is equally well fires and grazing, and hinged on the flight line. However, typically range missiles from such hybrids less.
In the early 20 century, during the Russian-Japanese war was designed a new type of artillery shells - mortars. Already during the First World War, he actively went in motion, but particularly large-scale applications consist of the Second World War. And now the mortar is an integral part of any military operations.
To combat aerial targets used, and use anti-aircraft artillery. It can be stationary or self. Use anti-aircraft guns and attack ground and surface targets.

Machine gun

After the invention of firearms, many designers to reflect an increase in their rate. The first quick-machine guns were a few metal tubes packed in parallel. When podzhiganii zatravochnogo gunpowder, they released all the bullets at once. Then guessed secure the perimeter of the cylinder barrels, with manual rotation whose trunks alternately vystrelivali.
A similar pattern applied Gatling, whose kartechnitsa became the prototype of all modern guns.
Machine Guns 20-21 century work force powder gases through which the ejection hand casings and ordering a new patron in the chamber. The most famous machine gun - Maxim. His invented in 1883, American Hiram Maxim. His modification used worldwide: drills in the Anglo-Boer War, the two sides during the October coup, many European countries and the Soviet Union until the end of the Second World War.
Depending on the caliber machine guns to distinguish melkokalibernye, normal and heavy. Infantry uses hand-held, mounted and heavy infantry. Are guns on tanks, planes, helicopters. To combat aerial targets used anti-aircraft guns and ship.
In modern armies of many countries to each platoon assigned gunner, whose massive fire supports the promotion or strengthening defense. These guns called uniform because They can fire as soshek, and with the machine. The office has a hand gun.
Machine Guns predetermined not only to eliminate the enemy troops. Heavy machine guns can affect light purpose (APCs, armored cars, etc.). There are special guns for the "withdrawal" of snipers.


Relatives rifles were pischal and harquebus. They look, of course, not as elegant as modern rifles, but acted very well. Although their use was quite difficult - harquebus can weigh up to 8 kilograms was wick castle. Shot from the base. But there were serpentine trigger, then wheeled and silicon locks, unitary cartridge - and the rifle has taken a modern look.
Name «rifle» went from cutting stem gun, which appeared in the 16 st century. Then his style screw pischalyu. This thread rotated bullet, giving it a more direct trajectory.
Vintovannoe gun had a good battle quality. A large range of targeted fire allowed to keep the enemy at a distance. For close combat rifle to adjoin bayonets or knives. A relatively small proportion guns (up to 5 kg) makes it easy to transport, movement on the battlefield and shooting Sighting. For the cavalry, motorized and special parts was issued a kind of rifle - the rifle. He had a smaller length for ease of use, however, have the worst TTH.
In the 1st world war rifle was the only type of personal weapons. But during the Second realized the need for a machine. At shorter distances machine is accurate, and rate more than pays for missteps. All the same rifles continue to operate as have an advantage over large distances. But a decade after the war, they were finally driven out. Now rifles in combat situations are used to defeat the purposes of single sniper.
In the USSR, for this purpose in the second world series rifle used Mosina. It supplied 3.5-fold view that allows a fairly accurate fire on targets up to 1.3 km. The only drawback was its loading a patron, because installation of an optical shop obstructed sight. Now standard rifle Russia - SVD, adopted by the back in 1963.